torstai 8. helmikuuta 2018

Poliittisen polarisaation rapauttavasta vaikutuksesta

Lukaisinpa juuri vihapuuheen ja valehteluviestien vaikutuksista mielenkiintoisen jutun, joka alla. Ei liene ihme, että se käsittelee USAa ja, kaikkien valehtelu-uutisten isää, Donald Trumppia. Koska englantia tunnutaan hinguttavan jo yhdeksi kaupunkiemme viralliseksi kieleksi ja varmaan kohta Suomenkin ajattelin tehdä itselleni elämän helpoksi ja käyttää tietoteknologian käyttööni luomaa välinettä, copy -pastea. Tuskin sen julkaisemisesta kopiostokaan syyttää voi, koska juttuni pointti on toinen. Sama kehitys toimii varmaan jo meilläkin. Suomessa.

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Today's WorldView
Edited by Max J. Rosenthal and Ruby Mellen

'Fake news' and the Trumpian threat to democracy

When President Trump addressed the World Economic Forum in Davos last month, his jabs at the “nasty,” “vicious,” “fake” media earned him audible groans and hisses
 — even from some non-American reporters in the room. It may have been a new experience for them, but journalists in the United States have become rather depressingly inured to Trump's diatribes.
That wasn't always the case.
“At the end of 2016, 'fake news' had a clear meaning
. It referred to stories that were fabrications — the Clinton Foundation paying for Chelsea Clinton’s wedding
 or a child sex ring run out of a D.C. pizza shop
,” noted The Washington Post's Fact Checker
. “The phrase was popularized after Google, Facebook and Twitter vowed to eliminate the phony content that some have speculated helped tilt the 2016 election in Donald Trump’s favor.”
But, starting early in his presidency
, Trump seized upon the words “fake news” and shaped them into a cudgel he incessantly wields. He has routinely tweeted against the “fake news” media when it has the temerity to fact-check a multitude of erroneous claims
 he has made; doled out “fake news” awards to outlets whose coverage he thinks is helplessly biased against him; and looked on as a series of autocrats and strongmen abroad aped his rhetoric, invoking “fake news” to argue away documented reports of ethnic cleansing
torture and war crimes

A new study, though, restores a bit of clarity to what “fake news” actually represents. Researchers at Oxford University's Internet Institute spent 18 months identifying 91 sources of propaganda
 from across the political spectrum on social media, which spread what they deemed “junk news” that was deliberately misleading or masquerading as authentic reporting. They then did a deep analysis of three months of social media activity in the United States, studying 13,477 Twitter users and 47,719 public Facebook pages that consumed or shared this fake news between November 2017 and January 2018.
What they found was a profound imbalance.
“Analysis showed that the distribution of junk news content was unevenly spread across the ideological spectrum,” the institute said in a news release
. “On Twitter, a network of Trump supporters shared the widest range of junk news sources and accounted for the highest volume of junk news sharing in the sample, closely followed by the conservative media group. On Facebook, extreme hard right pages shared more junk news than all the other audience groups put together.”
Right-wing critics of mainstream media in the United States would likely recoil at this characterization and point to what they see as anti-Trump hysteria in mainstream or liberal outlets. But the study shows there is no symmetrical equivalence.
“We find that the political landscape is strikingly divided across ideological lines when it comes to who is sharing junk news,” said Oxford researcher Lisa-Maria Neudert in a statement
. “We find that Trump supporters, hard conservatives and right-wing groups are circulating more junk news than other groups.”
The phenomenon is not limited to the United States. Late last year, a team of German researchers at Hoffenheim University created a fake far-right news site
 that shared fabricated, sensationalist stories on Facebook about refugees and immigrants. These pieces reached thousands of far-right supporters in Germany, many of whom recirculated the stories. It reflected the willingness of people in ideological echo chambers to believe what they want to believe rather than check or evaluate sources.
It also exposed a problem with social-media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, which critics have lambasted as not doing enough to curb the scourge of fraudulent content and “bots” that amplify fake news. “It was striking that our Facebook profile was never questioned — not by Facebook, that is, the institution itself, nor by other users,” said Wolfgang Schweiger, the lead researcher in the project, to the BBC.
Studies like this and the Oxford Internet Institute investigation may add to the pressure on tech companies
 to do better at fighting misinformation spread through their platforms. Facebook and other companies are working to better identify fake accounts and stem the damage they might cause. In Italy, Facebook has contracted a team of independent fact checkers
 to monitor and debunk fake news ahead of elections next month. On Tuesday, Facebook agreed to a similar arrangement with Mexico's National Electoral Institute
A model of a new fact-checking feature being introduced on Facebook in Italy to safeguard the country's parliamentary elections on March 4. (Facebook)
A model of a new fact-checking feature being introduced on Facebook in Italy to safeguard the country's parliamentary elections on March 4. (Facebook)
But while social media may help reinforce tribal divisions, the “fake news” moment reflects a deeper, intensifying polarization in the United States and elsewhere, one that predates Trump's political rise or even the era of social media as a prime vehicle for delivering information. As Vox's Matt Yglesias writes in a gloomy essay on the prospect of a looming crisis in American democracy
, the country's political system is being fundamentally weakened by intensifying ideological divisions. Those gaps have made compromise more difficult and emboldened presidents to expand their executive powers.
“Over the past 25 years, it's set America on a course of paralysis and crisis — government shutdowns, impeachment, debt ceiling crises, and constitutional hardball,” Yglesias wrote. “Voters, understandably, are increasingly dissatisfied with the results and confidence in American institutions has been generally low and falling. But rather than leading to change, the dissatisfaction has tended to yield wild electoral swings that exacerbate the sense of permanent crisis.”
In this climate, the proliferation of “fake news” — and the arguments over it — are a mark of a dangerous political degradation. For Trump, it serves as an extension of the same demagogic mind-set that saw him labeling Democrats who did not clap during his speech as “un-American” and “treasonous.” Analysts point to how such unravelings led to coups and chaos
 in countries as disparate as Chile
 and Turkey
“Some polarization is healthy, even necessary, for democracy. But extreme polarization can kill it. When societies divide into partisan camps with profoundly different worldviews, and when those differences are viewed as existential and irreconcilable, political rivalry can devolve into partisan hatred,” wrote Harvard political scientists Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblatt
, authors of the new book “How Democracies Die.” “Parties come to view each other not as legitimate rivals but as dangerous enemies. Losing ceases to be an accepted part of the political process and instead becomes a catastrophe.”

Yllä olevan artikkelin julkaisin, "toisella" otsikolla ensin

2 kommenttia:

Anonyymi kirjoitti...


Kolmannen valtakunnan propakandaministeri Göbbellsillä oli käsitys valheesta ja tuudesta:

Göbbels Zitat: "Wenn man eine große Lüge erzählt und sie oft genug
wiederholt, dann werden die Leute sie am Ende glauben. Man kann die
Lüge so lange behaupten, wie es dem Staat gelingt, die Menschen von
den politischen, wirtschaftlichen und militärischen Konsequenzen der
Lüge abzuschirmen. Deshalb ist es von lebenswichtiger Bedeutung für
den Staat, seine gesamte Macht für die Unterdrückung abweichender
Meinungen einzusetzen. Die Wahrheit ist der Todfeind der Lüge, und
daher ist die Wahrheit der größte Feind des Staates."

Mitä muuta tämä Fake News -käytäntö on, Trumppi noudattaa tätä periaatetta ihan täydellisesti. Muutenkin tieteellinen totuus asetetaan yhä enemmän vaihtoehdoksi mutu-tiedon (musta tuntuu) kanssa, generoidaan tältä pohjalta vaihtoehtoista totuutta.

Ei siis mitään uutta auringon alla. Aikamme on siirtymässä kohti totaliristisiä järjestelmiä demokraattisen järjestelmien osoittautuessa nekin ulkoa ohjatuiksi. Herää kysymys, onko demokratia pelkkää harhaa, hyväuskoisen taviksen cusetusta. On ehkä pitkällä tähtäimellä samantekevää, ketä me äänestämme tai että äänestämmekö ollenkaan? Siinä suhtessa ehdotuksesi kirjoittamalla vaalilippuun "joku muu", voisi olla se ainoa mielekäs teko tyytymättömyyden osoittamiseen. Ehkä perustellusti voi sanoa, että demokratia on mahdolisesti vain yksi teatteritaiteen muoto, jossa näyttämö on koko meidän ihmisten rakentama järjestemä.

tutkija Pohjanmaalta

PS. Sain vinkin myös toisesta podiumista, jolla myös blogia pidät. Laiton kirjanmerkkin ja seuraan sitäkin.

Hakki kirjoitti...

Hei PohjanPoika

Tuon Göbbelsin sitaatin ajatus on ollut luonnollisesti tuttu minullekin ja olen sitä toki usein siteerannut. Sen sijaan sen keskeisimmäksi nouseva viesti on uutta: "Die Wahrheit ist der Todfeind der Lüge, und daher ist die Wahrheit der größte Feind des Staates." Siihenhän tuo Donaldin logiikkakin taitaa johtaa, ellei sille saada stoppia ajoissa.

Kuten tuossa Brave New Filmsin FB-filmissä todetaan varsin vakuuttavan tuntuisen asiantuntijajoukon toimesta vahvistetaan
on meillä todella syytä huoleen. Jos ei muusta niin ainakin siitä, että emme asiasta vaikenemalla ja sen seurauksista varottamatta syyllisty samaan, mikä mahdollisti Josephin pomon nousun maailmojen tuhoojaksi 20 - 30 luvulla.

Tuosta toisesta blogista sen verran, että yritän siinä avata jonkinlaista sukupolvien vuoropuhelua ja hiljaisen tiedon tallentamista ja siirtämistä kokeneelta, menevien miesten sukupolvelta tuleville. Haaste taitaa olla valtava ja taistelua tuulimyllyjä vastaa, mutta aina voi ainakin yrittää?

Haaste onnistuu vain jos mukaan kirjoittajiksi ja kommentoijiksi lähtee mahdollisimman monipuolinen joukko senioreita. Nimellä tai nimimerkillä.